The process you described of counting all items in the location is the standard cycle count functionality to my knowledge. The cycle counting logic is based on counting all items in a location. I am not aware of another way to do this, outside of using inventory count journals which of course does not support the mobile device.
If you wanted to explore inventory count journals a bit more, there is a PowerApp option to execute those counts. Check this out - Scenario 3: Inventory Counting Assistant
I may be misunderstanding part of the challenge but have you reviewed your cycle count work templates to see if they are set to break by item? Please reference the Microsoft documentation below for partial location cycle counting.
Great suggestion Michael! Just confirmed that works as advertised. Was able to create cycle count work for specific items in a location.
Yes, thanks Michael and Paul. I was able to do so as well. One more question, is there a way to randomly count some items in a location without predefining the actual items being count (i.e. like spot counting, but not bring back all of the items in a location, just the ones the user has counted)?
I am not aware of a way to spot count without counting the entire location. You could perhaps have a ad-hoc cycle count plan that would be setup to do partials, as mentioned above, and update that plan based on what you intend to count. I know this is not an ideal solution but perhaps a workaround option before pursuing a mod.
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